ALF LAYLAH WA LAYLAH PDF
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One Thousand and One Nights Arabic: It is often known in English as the Arabian Nightsfrom the first English-language laylau c. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa. Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval ArabicPersianGreekIndianJewish and Turkish  folklore and literature.
A Thousand Taleswhich in turn relied partly on Indian elements. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1, or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion.
Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrainsalthough some are longer. In his bitterness and grief, he decides that all women are the same. Eventually the vizierwhose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion.
The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again. This goes on for one thousand and one nights, hence the name.
The tales vary widely: Numerous stories depict jinns w, ghoulsapes sorcerersmagiciansand legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally.
Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashidhis Grand VizierJafar al-Barmakiand the famous poet Abu Nuwasdespite the fact that these laylxh lived some years after the fall of the Sassanid Empirein which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set.
Sometimes a character in Scheherazade’s tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story qa have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture.
The different versions have different individually detailed endings in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.
The narrator’s standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophyand in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen —and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king’s curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life.
The history of the Nights is extremely complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it currently exists came about. Robert Irwin summarises their findings:.
In the s and s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged. Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Laylaor ‘The Thousand Nights’.
This collection then formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights.
Alf Layla wa-Layla
The original core of stories was quite small. Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, ws original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were apf to the compilation [ In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1, nights of storytelling promised by the book’s title.
Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the Nights. The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable.
It is possible that the influence of the Panchatantra is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the Tantropakhyana. Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil,  Lao,  Thai  and Old Javanese. In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the “Fihrist” in Baghdad.
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He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed “evening tales and fables”. He also writes disparagingly of the collection’s literary quality, observing that “it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling”. Akf the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa’ may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights.
This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century. In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nightsdating from the 9th century. This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights.
ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA – Encyclopaedia Iranica
Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials. One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid diedhis vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d.
Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales. It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden editionwhich is based above all on the Galland manuscript.
It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written,  and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.
The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recensiondoes contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core. It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more “authentic” and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.
He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppoa Maronite scholar whom he called “Hanna Diab. As scholars were looking for the presumed “complete” and “original” form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the “standard version”. The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane, were bowdlerized.
Burton’s original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Nightwhich were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its “archaic language and extravagant idiom” and “obsessive focus on sexuality” and has even been called an “eccentric ego-trip ” and a “highly personal reworking of the text”.
Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J.
Mardrusissued from to lalah It was translated into English by Powys Mathersand issued in Like Payne’s and Burton’s texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it alylah been criticized for inaccuracy. Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a “definitive” coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.
In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C.
Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin. It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called “orphan stories” of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland ‘s original French. As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, “58757o attempt has been made laglah superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to ‘rectify’ Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.
In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniqueswhich the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions. An early example of the frame storyor framing deviceis employed in the One Thousand and One Nightsin which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.
Many of Scheherazade’s tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad laylxh Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. An early example of the laulah story within a story ” technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nightswhich can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.
The Nightshowever, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced.
In the Panchatantrastories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase “If you’re not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.
The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade’s narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories. Within the “Sinbad the Sailor” story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.
In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, ” The Fisherman and the Jinni “, the “Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban ” is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated. Dramatic visualization is “the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene ‘visual’ or imaginatively present to an audience”.
This technique is used in several tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny.
The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale. By ‘beautiful’ I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a ‘disappearance’ of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.
Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designationnow known as ” Chekhov’s gun “, occur in the One Thousand and One Nightswhich contains “repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative”.
Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning”the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds”.
This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecywhich dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literatureand Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.